Most Atlantologists have sited Atlantis in the Atlantic Ocean. And the rest, with a few exceptions, have placed the lost continent in the Mediterianean (Thera) or in the Black Sea regioin (Kertch). Even disregarding the fact that the failure to find any traces of a lost continent in any one of these regions demonstrates that these could not have been the location of Atlantis, it is easy to show by intrinsic arguments that these placements contradict the rather precise disclosures of Plato.
It was their disregard of Plato’s own words that led then to look for Atlantis in the wrong places, as we now show.The terms utilized by Plato have a precise geographical meaming, which must be taken into consideration if one really wants to find the site of Atlantis. Besides, one must not be led astry by the fact that the Greeks never ventured outside the Mediterranean in early times. The legend of Atlantis is mon-Greek, as Plato limself acknowledges, but came to then via Egypt and, not impossibly, from Phoenician sources such as the writings of Pherecydes of Syros, to which Plato certainly had an acess.
Let us start by quoting Plato’s Timaeus (24) in the passage concerning the location of Atlantis:
This power came out of the Atlantic Ocean – for in those days the Atlantic was navigable – and there was an island situated beyond the straits which are by you called the Pillars of Hercules. This island was larger than than Libya and Asia put together, and was the way to other islands, from which you might pass to the opposite continent which wholly surrounds the true Ocean. For this sea which is within the aforementioned strait is but a gulf having a narrow entrance, but the other is a true ocean, and the land that surrounds it may truly be called a continent. Now, in this Island of Atlantis there was a great and wighty empire…
In the above passage, we have carefully corrected some of the usual sloppy renderings that obscure the clear text of Plato, and have led to the usual erros of interpretation. Properly interpreted, this passage excludes some of the regions usually considered as possible sites of Atlantis and open others that have been erroneously exclude do to a poor interpretation of terms such as “Pillars of Hercules”; “island”, “continent”, etc.. In what follows we discuss these terms in the light of the ancient geography of Plato’s trines, and put them in the proper perspective (See Apendix B).
But before we engage in the exgesis of the above text proper, let us make a few preliminary remarks. It definitely excludes both Thera and the Black Sea region, for hardly would people from these Mediterranean region come out of the Atlantic Ocean or be deermed to lie outiside the Pillars of Hercules. Evevn if we take into consideration the fact that the Strait of Kertch was also called “Pillars of Hercules”, the region of Cimmeria, Pontus and Asia Minor lay inside them, and not outside, as Plato affirms. And never would they be called “islands” or be deemed the way to the Outer Continent.
We are, hence, left with the regions outside the Mediterranean Basin, and those beyond Asia Minor and Cimmeria. Atlantis must then be quested either in the Atlantic or in the India Ocean, both of which formed the True Ocean considered by Plato.Sticking to Plato’s text, we note the following points:
1) The Atlanteans are said to have come out of the Atlantic Ocean, form huge island beyond the Pillars of Hercules. This can have two alternative interpretations. Either Plato was:
a) Translating foreign terms and names – as he acknowledge specifically – and putting in Greek terms such as “Atlantic Ocean” and “Pillars of Hercules” for the original ones of like meaning, or
b) He was using these words in the broad sense, to denote the Circular Oceanus and the idea of “somewhere beyond the Pillars of Hercules”.
c) The sentence quoted is composed of two separate parts as analysed furthes below.
Were he using them in the strict sense of “right in front of the Pillars of Hercules of Gibraltar” his tale would be a mere fable, as no empire, sunker a not, like the one he is describing ever existed in the region. Some have proposed that the sub-continental island of Plato is America. But America is precisely the Outer Continent mentroned by Plato as distinct from the island of Atlantis. Nor could it have been the Antilles – which never did sink – nor the Bahamas’ submarine plateau, which is for too small to be Plato’s lurge island. We discussed this mather elsewhere in the present work, and will not return to it here.
A literal interpretation of Plato’s text is out of the question, particularly because he assents that “the Atlantic was navigable in those days” and later “became clogged by an impassable barrier of nud” after the sinking of Atlantis. Now, this never happened to the Atlantic Ocean, as Gibraltar has been open for the last several million years. Hence, Plato is talking of another Atlantic Ocean, one whose access had been closed to the Greeks by an impassable barrier of mud. In other words, he is alluding to the Ocean of the Atlanteans which he mistekenly identified with the Atlantic Ocean, following Herodotus. But Herodotus, as we saw in Appendix A, purposefully uses an equivocal text claiming that “the Atlantic and the Erythraean are one and the same sea”.
So, according to Herodotus, who introduced the terminology, the Atlantic and the Erythraean are one and the same sea. Either Plato fell into Herodotus trap and got confused or – far more probably, for both were initiates and could not divulge the secrets of the Mysteries, except in allegorical terms such as the above – Plato allegorized and put in Atlantic when Erythraean would be a for clearer rendition.That the Erythraean (or Indian) Ocean is the correct solution is demonstrated by many arguments both intrinsic and extrinsic:
1) The tradition came to Plato via the Egyptians. Now, the Egyptians were wholly unfamiliar with the Mediterranean and, even more, the Atlantic. But they roned the Indian from earliest times and crossed into India regularly, as we showed elsewhere.
2) The Egyptian origins are Indian, and so are their sacred traditions concerning Amenti, Punt, the Ancestral Land (To-Mera), the Island of the Blest, etc.. All their traditional llinks being bound to India, it would be a surprise to discover that their remotest ties made them confront an Atlantean power that never was, rather tham their traditional enermies, the “reds” of India and Phoenicia.
3) The geohraphy of the Erythraean perfectly fits the one of Atlantis, whereas that of the Atlantic does not at all.
a) The Erythraean was accessible via Suez, – open in Atlantean times as we demonstrate elsewhere – but became clogged by literally an impassable barrier of mud which came to block the strait, turned into a marshy isthmus.
b) The Island of Atlantis – described by Plato as about 400 x 600 km – closely corresponds to the doab (“island”) of Sindh, formed by the Indus and the Sutlej
c) The way to India from Suez via the Red Sea and the Erythraean was based on a series of islands in those seas, the last of which was Socotra placed beyond the How of Africa as the ultimate landfall for provisioning. This is precisely what Plato says.
d) India, or rather, the Indus was the way to the other islands (doabs) and to the epeiric continent formed by the maim body of Asia, just as Plato affirms.
e) The Bad-el-Mandes (or “Gate of Pain”) was the archetype of the Pillars of Hercules, as we demonstrate in Appendix B. The way Plato phrases the passage “which is by you called the Pillars of Hercules” suggest the interpretation that he was lying and putting the blame on us, a technique that is often utilized in allgories.
d) India is right in front of the Gulf of Aden and the Bab-el-Mandeb, precisely as Plato asserts.
4) Plato’s text is broken in the first sentence as if to suggest two independent facts.
a) The Atlanteans came out of the Atlantic Ocean, and
b) Their island was situated beyond the Pillars of Hercules.
If this is indeed the case, we have the alternative 1)c stated further above. In this case, we are to understand Plato’s text to meam that Atlantis was placed beyond the Pillars of Hercules of the Bab-el-Manded (hence, in India) but for some reason chose the longer ronte and decided to invade Greece and Egypt from Gibraltar rather tham across Suez.
This night be the case, for instance, it the Suez Canal was clogged up by the Egyptians – as it indeed often was – in order to prevent just that feared invasion. Another reason is perhaps a brilhant strategy that has won many great battles. The Atlanteans decided to invade Greece and Egypt from behind and surprise them. If the Suez Canal was open, the Egyptians and the Greeks, their allies, would certainly strogly ganison the Strait in order to prevent an invasion from fearful Atlantis and its colonies.
5)The Atlanteans had a mighty empire all over Africa. They were the mighty Ethiopians stretching all the way from India in the East to modern Ethiopia in Africa, and all around that continent to Morocco and beyond, all the way to Italy, as Plato himself acknowledges. Since they had provisioning factories all around the coast of Africa, it would be an easy matter for them to coast it as Vasco da Gama later did and invade the Mediterranean via Gibraltar, thus fooling the Egyptian and Greek defences stationed at the Red Sea.
6) There is no sign of a sunken island of continental dimensions on the Atlantic. But the region of India, particularly in the Indus Valley, is earthquake prone and not only has sunk in a large extension, but is even today sinking. Local legends such as those of Lankã and Dvãrãka testify to traditions of sunken continents there and corroborata the geological and the archacological testimonies. They also speak of former brilliant civilijations of great antiquity and unsurpassed knowledge which are fully backed up by the magnificent relics of a superior science preserved in their Holy Books which they date at 20.000 years or more, well inside Plato’s date for the Atlantean events. So, the Atlanteans attempted to pass into the Mediterranean and get established there because they realized that their homeland would son be destroyed, and they decided to leave en masse before the Big One struek them dead. Theirs was a desperate attempt, rather tham “insolent pride”, as Plato, the Greek, puts it. But it seems that the cataclysm exceed all imaginable sounds, and canght up with them and the Greeks even in the farawy Mediterranean.
To summarize and conclude. We have seen that there were many Pillars of Hercules posted at essentially all gateways (straits) that led from the Outer Ocean to the Inner Sea (the Mediterranean). So, Plato could well be talking of another one, probably the Suez Canal. Likewise, the Ocean mentioned by Plato can only be the Indian Ocean, identified in Plato’s time with the Atlantic Ocean. We can interpret Plato’s text in many ways which are discussed in detail. But all of them inequivocally point to India as the true site of Atlantis, for it is there and nowhere else that we have the geological evidence, the archeological evidence; the legendary backing and the magnificent Holy Books that show inequivocal poof of a Superior Civilization whose o chievements far surpass own own.
THE MYTHICAL GEOGRAPHY OF THE ANCIENTS
The anncient Greeks and Romans had a very limited conception of the world, for they seldon explored region outside the Mediterranean region. Their navigation was coastal, and they never explored the Atlantic Ocean, effectively blockaded by the Phoenicians and, later, by their successors, the Carthagimans, from earliest times down to the defeat of Carthago by Scipio Africanus in 206BC. The Indian Ocean was better know to them from the Egyptian and the Phoenician accounts, as well as through the reports of Greek navigants of the region, such as Scylax of Caria (fl. 6th. century BC) who explored the coast from the Indus down to the Red Sea.
The Egyptians of Pharaoh Neccho had rounded Africa in the late 7th. century BC. Eudoxus of Cuidus, in 108BC, made regular trips to India from Egypt, and even attempted to round Africa, failing on the way. Alexander had Nearcchus, his admirel, explore the coast of the Indian ocean in 326BC and he came from the Indus mouth down to the Persian Gulf. Alexander intended to sail down to the Red Sea and beyond, romding Africa and entering the Mediterranean via Gibraltar. But he died before he could complete his dream. The direct crossing of the Erythrean (Indian Ocean) from the Red Sea into India was first done by the Greek Hippalos at the start of the 1st. century BC. However, Nearcchus had already learnt of it from the Indians pilots, who did it on a regular basis since the down of time. For this purpose they utilized the monsoon currents and winds, which reverse seasonally every six months. This direct crossing is far easier and speedier than the coasting. Hippalos learnt the secret of the direct crossing from the Hindu and the Arab pilots who did it regularly from the port of Socotra.
World knowledge down to the times of Plato (428-348BC) and Herodotus (484-420BC) is summarized in the map of Fig.1 below, due to Hecateus.
Fig.1 – The World Accordin to Hecateus (L.S. de Camp, Lost Cont.,219; Brit 81,7:1037)
The idea of a flat earth floating on an immense ocean seems to have originated with Thales of Miletus (fl. 6th. century BC). Later philosophers added an outer, ringing continent, in order to confine the water, and prevent it from spilling over the borders. This conception of the world suwived down the times of Columbus despite the Pythagorean doctrine of a spherical earth with which some philosophers – including Plato and Aristotle – were familiar 1 .
With reference to Fig.1. At the center we have the Mediterranean – called Mare Internum, Mare Magnum, Mare Intestinum, Mare Nostrum and, later, Mare Mediterranean (after the third century AD). It connected with the Euxinus (Black Sea) and the Palus Maeotis (Macotian Marshes) at the rigth and to the Oceanus at left. The Maetian Marshes are what we now call the Sea of Azov. The Caspian Sea (as shown) was believed to connect with the Oceanus and, also, with the Palus Maeotis (not shown), linking the Mediterranean to the Ocean. At the south we have the Arabian Gulf (Red Sea), also connecting to the Mediterranean via the Suez Canal, which was opened and closed on various accasions. Further east we have the Persian Gulf, also deemed to connect with the Mediterranean through the deserts of Persia.2
So, in the ancient view – either on fact or purely mythical – we have four straits connecting the Mediterranean to the Outer Ocean: one on the West (Gibraltar); one at the South (Bab-el-Mandeb, at the exit of the Red Sea); the Cimmerian Bosphorus (at the Sea of Azov) at the North; the Persian Gulf at the west (Ormuz Strait). All four straits – posted as they were, at the Four Cardinal Directions – were garnished with Pillars of Hercules. These “pillars” were, originally towers or fortified lighthouses, posted at the two banks of the straits in order to garrison them and guard the entrace against intruders.
They were posted first by he Atlanteans and, later, by their sucessors, the Phoenicians and later, bay their sucessors, the Phoenicians and the Carthaginians. With the passage of time, these passages either became closed (Suez, Bosphorus, Persian Gulf) or abandoned (Gibraltar), and the Pillars were destroyed. But their presence is attested in legends, and in suwivals such as the Herakleums of Gibraltar, Suez and the Bosphorus, where symbolic pillars were posted as a witness.
A further pair whose existence was a close guarded secret was posted at the Indus Delta and guarded the entrance to Paradise via the River Oceanus (the Indus) which also linked to the Euximo Pontus by means of the Kabul and the Amu-Darya, either in fact or in fiction. This pair of Pillars – which should not be confused with the Pillar of Heaven (Mt. Atlas) – corresponds to the Twin Cherubs, the Guardians of Paradise. The other four are the well-known Four Guardians, also called Four Lokapãlas (“local guardians”) by the Hindus.
The Four Lokapãlas are Indra (East); Varuna (West); Yama (South) and Kubera (North). The Guardians are also subdivided into eight – India, Agni, Yama, Sürya, Varuna, Vãyu, Kubera, Soma – each pair of twing guarding one of the Cardinal Directions. The Fifth and the Central gate – the Gate of Paradise – is guarded by the fifth pair of Twins; Shiva and Umã.3 These two Guardians or Chembs also correspond to Hercules and Atlas, the Greek names of the Guardians of Paradise. Legends such as that of the Argonauts tells of the crossing into the Euxine and the Mediterranean via this secret passage already partly clogged, as they had to cary the Argus on their backs through the Palus Maeotis.
Recapitulating, there were four pairs of Pillars of Hercules guarding the four “gulfs” of the Outer Ocean, which linked to the Mediterranean at the Four Cardinal Directions. They were, originally, garrisoned lighthouses on both banks of each strait. When these decayed, they were (lates) substitnted by Heraklemms (temples of Hercules) and, later still, by the symbolic equivalents, the vicinal peacks such as Calpe and Abila, the aliases of Scylla and Charybdis. The Five Pillars were posted according to Table I (see).
Table I – The Five Pillars of Hercules1
Name of Region
Rann of Kutch ²
Obs: 1) Both the regions and the guardians had several different names. The ones given are the more usual in Latin and Greek.
2) This is name of the region, as the straits were not know for sure.
Cosmas Indicopleustes – or colom we already wrote elsewhere in this work – published a map of the world in his Topographia Christiana which we reproduce in Fig.2
Fig.2 – Map of the world of Cosmos Indicopleustes (Donnelly, Atlantis, pg. 96; Imbelloni, Atlantidas, pg. 246)
Cosmas had access to now lost documents of the famous Library of Alexandria Besides, he was charged by the Church with the task of discovering the site of Paradise. Cosmas was a navigating merchant of Alexandria, before becoming a work, and was highly familiarized with the whole region A the Indian Ocean. The highly stylized maps of Cosmas have been ridiculed by many, who fail to understand their imitiatic character.
Disregarding the watter of projection, his maps turn out to be rather accurate. The Ocean circundates the earth comprised of Africa (lower left), Europe (upper left) and Asia (rigth). The four figures blowing horus indicate the Cardinal Directions and represent the four winds. The Outer Continent – called Ge peras tou Okeanoy (or Land beyond the Ocean) – is shown in white all around the Ocean. The four Gulfs (or intermal seas) are clearly shown: the Mediterranean; the Persian Gulf; the Red Sea (Arabians Sinus) and the Caspian Sea (Caspium Mare). As is clear, the Caspian links to the Ocean at the North.
The enclosed square shown at the extreme rigth is the Paradise (or Eden) – which Cosmas explicity identifies with Atlantis – It is Shown as a well-watered region full of lakes or dams, out of which spring the Four Rivers of Paradise. The Phison passes under the Ocean, discharging in the Persian Gulf and the Geon – clearly identified with the Nile – does the same, discharging in the Mediterranean.
We see that Cosmas was clinging to the legend of the mystical identity of the Nile and the Geon, one of the Four Rivers of Paradise. Josephus (Antiq. I:1:3) also affirms the same mystical identity:
And Geon runs through Egypt, and denotes “what arises in the Orient”, and is by the Greek called Nile.
Herodotus too (Hist. II:21) alludes to the same legend. Legend that the Nile arose in India and, passing under the Ocean bed, spring up again in Ehtiopia, becoming the Egyptian river. The confusion arose quite naturally from the fact that the Nile took its name (“blue”) from that of the Indus, often addressed by that ephithet in India. The other reason for the myptical identification was that it was known to arise in Ethiopia and there were two Ethiopias, one in Africa and the other in India. Alexander had cleared up the problem of the Nile sources almost a millenniwn before the time of Cosmas but, as we see, the legend survived this fact.
Another extremely interesting map is that of Saint Severus, published in his Imago Mundis in the Ix century ad. (Fig.3).
Fig.3 – Map of the World of Saint Severus (Imbelloni, Atlantidas, pg. 246).
Again, Paradise is shown in India, near the Himelayas (Upper Center) indicated by Adam and Eve and the Serpent of Eden. The mearly circular Oceanus enardes the whole earths. Note that the Orient (Oriens) is up and North (Septentrio) is left. The Ocean is populated with islands, most of which are legendary: Tule (sic), Gades, Fortunate, Crisa (“golden”), Argire (“Silver”), etc..
Here the Nile is correctly shown crising in Ethiopia from a large lake (Lake Rudolph?) and divided into too branches (the Blue and White Nile). The Caspian Sea ( upper right) is shown connecting with the Ocean. The Four rivers are shown issuing from Paradise. Two flow towards the Orient – towards the land of the geus seres (China) – and two orther flow southward. One of these seems to be the Tigris but the other is the Indus as identicated by the lurge delta (the Ramn of Kutch) and given that the Euphrates is distinctly show to the west of the Tigris.
The other two rivers of Paradise that run towards the last and rise near the Indus can only be the Ganger and the Brachrmaputra. As we see, the ancients well know that the Phrat of Paradise was not the Euphrates of Mesopotamia, but its Celestial archetype, the Indus. Josephus (Antiq. I:1:3) also affirms the identity of the Phison with the Ganges; and of Geon with the Nile (or Indus) and his assertion that “the Tign and the Euphrata, run into the Red Sea (Erythraean)” a dubious phrase, for Erythraean denoted the Arabian Sea and its Gulfs and, hence, these two rivers could well be the Indus and the Sutlej that do the same on the Indian coast. As we see the geography of the ancients was reasonebly accurate even for the distant regions of Asia and Africa. They also had the motion that Atlantis and Paradise were one and the same region, and that they both lay in India, near the region where the Four Rivers of Paradise are born. Now, this is Mt. Kailasa in both fact and Indian legend too and we see that legend os Paradise arose in India, for it is not likely that the Jeros would place their Paradise in a region unknown to them.
Many other Medieval also knew that Paradise lay in India (the “Orient”) precisely as affirmed in Genesis; and many of them identified Atlantis to the Biblical Paradise. After the discovery of America – confused with India by Columbus and others – some changed the site of Atlantis (Paradise to this new continent. But many still maintained the idea that Atlantis was located in India. Among these, we have De Senes (1570); S. Borchart (1646); J. Vossius (1658); D.Huet (1700), who also identified Atlantis and Paradise.
In the map of Saint Severus of Fig. 3 we have the Fortunate Islands placed in the far Occident, more or less in the region of the Canaries. This placement had become standard already in the time of the Greeks and Romans, as attested by Plutarch, Pliny, and others. But, originaly, these islands were, as in Homer, placed in the Erythraean (Ogygia). More exactly, the Island of the Blest is a direct translation of the Sanskrit name of Socrata , called Sãkadhara dvipa (“Island of the Blest”) in Sanskrit. That the origin of the myth of the Island of the Blest – a sort of remains of sunken Paradise/Atlantis – is Oriental is afforded by Josephus (Wars II:8:11) that affirms that the Essenes – the Jewish sect who was the precursor of Christianism – believed:
Like the opinion of the Greeks, that good souls had their abode beyond the Ocean, in a region that is never disturbed by tempests of rain or snow, wor by intense heat, but that their place is always refreshed by a gentle breeze from west wind which perpetually blows from the Ocean, whereas they allot to bad souls a dark and tempestuous abode, full of never-ceasing punishiments. The Greeks followeed these opinions…
These words of Josephus are mearly identical to those of Homer (Odyssey IV:561) when he describes the Island of Blest. Even the west wind (Zephyr) blowing from the Ocean and indicating that this land lies in the Orient is featured in both passages, and there can be no question of more coincidence. So, we see that, as usual, the ancients spoke of two Islands of the Blest, one in the Orient, the other in the Occident, we linkewise have an important point for the understanding of ancient myths in that the ancients spoke of two or even three Ethiopias, as we comment elsewhere in the present work. From the times of Homer there were two Ethiopias, one in the Far East (India) and the other in the other in the Far East (India) and the other in the Far West (Morocco). To this must be added the present Ethiopia (East Africa) which, in ancient times, was believed to linke with Western Ethiopia.
The name of Bosphorus – literally denoting the same as Oxford or “place where the bulls are forded” – designated a shallow strait usually between two continents. The Cimmerian Bosphorus was the strait of Kertch linking the Sea of Azov (Palus Maeotis) to the Black Sea (Pontus Euxinus). The Scythian Bosphorus, or Simply Bosphorus was the one separating Asia Minor from Europe near Stambul. The name Bosphorus is a translation into Greek of the Phoenician word Gadeiros, desigrating the same idea. We discuss this word elsewhere in this work, as it is the Phoenician, name of Eumelos, the brother of Atlas who is no other than Hercules.
The word Gades also denote something like the English “gate”, being derived from the Sanskrit ghätti meaning the same. Even today, the main ports of ingress in a country are called “Gate”. Thus, we have the Golden Gate Strait in California (USA), connecting the San Francisco Bay with the Pacific Ocean. Placed in an ancient river mounth – the usual topografhy of all ancient gades – it served as the oceanic gateway to the port cities of the bay and the rivers that discharge there.
Bombay – the main port of ingress to India – is called “the Gate of India”. Bombay is built at the foot of the Ghäts (“gates”) from which the name of the other Gades probably derives. Bombay lies at the entrance of Bombay Harbom and the mouth of the Thãna River. This marshy region is called Ghãt-Kopãr – a term that derives from ghät-kopäl or “ford of the cowherds” or, other words, the same as Gades or Oxford. Moreover, Bombay is the main city of the Gujarät region, and Gujarät derives from gu-järat or ox-ford.
So, there can be no doubt that Bombay belongs to the venerable tradition of the ancient Gades and is, quite likely, the very archetype of Gadeiros, (or Hercules), the twin brother of , Atlas, the Twins personifying Atlantis and Gades. Very likely, Bombay is the same as the ancient Gädhi (or Gädheya), also named Känyakubje (or Dhumädi or Dhära), the archetype of Atlantis and the true source of the name Gades. Gädhi can also, perhaps, be identified with Dvãrãka, usually translated as “Mamy-gates” or “Gate of Pain” (Dvära-aka); but probably really meaming dvära (gate) äkal (of cows) meaming the same as as gadeiros. Avienus (824) affirm that the island of Geryon (Erytheia) was also called Gades and places it “beyond the Ocean where Dionysus erected the famous Pillars”. Herodotus (hist IV:8) places it “beyond the Pontus (Asia Minor) and the Pillars of Hercules upon the Ocean, near Gades”. There can be no doubt that both anthors are talking of an Eastern Gades, in the Indian Ocean. Perhaps, the same Gädhi we identified with Bombay.
We also have, of course, the Gades of Spain (Cadiz); the Agadir (Ha Gadin) of Marocco; the Kadesh (or Gades), the Holy or Biblical farme; the Cadi (modern Gédiz) of Asia Minor; the Gadara (Mkés) of Palestine; the Gadrosia (of Gedrosia) of the Balischitan coast; the Gates of Gaul; the Kades (Kedes) of Palestine, where Tobias was born; etc., etc.. The Ganges (or Gangä) also meams something like “oxford”, being derived from Sanskrit gan-gä (“go-cattle” or, rather “where cattle ford”). Its delta is an important oceess to East India and is, like the Gujaräta, an excellent pasture for cattle.
We have locate at least there ancient Gades: the Western one at Gibraltar; the Northern one at the Bosphorus; the Central one at Bombay. The Eastern one seems to be the Ganges delta and the Southern one appears to be the narrow strait between Sri-Lankä and the Southers tip of India. This strait is called Adam’s Bridge or Räma’s Bridge (Räma-setu), the famous bridge built by Räma in order to attaek Lankä with his army. “Army” and “herd” are synonymous in Sanskrit (gana), and Räma’s Bridge is a Bosphorus, if not in name, at least in legend. The place is also called Ramêsvare and is one of the most sacred tirthas (“fords”) or places of pilgrimage in India. The name of Räma seems connected with the word “ram”, and it is not unlikely that this kind of pun is implved in his name. If this is so, Räma-setu world meam “bridge (or pass) of the rams (cattle)” or , in other words, gadeiros.
The Oceanus which encircled the earth was composed of the Atlantic plus the India. The Atlantic Ocean was also called Oceanus Occidentalis, Mare Oceassum, Mare Magnum, Mare Externum. The name Atlantic first appears in Herodotus (I:203):
The sea frequented by the Greeks – that beyond the Pillars of Hercules – which is called the Atlantic and the Erythraean are one and the same sea (the Oceanus).
The Oceanus should not be confused with the River Oceanus (the Indus). Both derive their names from the Sanskrit asayäna meaming “round going”. The River Oceanus was the round dyke that encircled Atlantis and was formed by the twin rivers Indus and Sutlej, precisely as described in Plato’s Critias.
Contrary to Herodotus assertion, quoted above, the Greeks never ventured outside Gibraltar and utterly ignored the geography of its coasts. The Phoemicians first explored these coast at the middle of the 5th. century BC, when they sent the expedition led by Hanno and Himilco, the first toward the south, the second twards the north. The Atlantic was divided into several seas: Oceanus Britannicus; Mare Gallicum, Hyperboreus (or Cronius or Mortuus or Septentrionalis) Oceanus, etc.. The Indicus Oceanus was also subdivided into seas: the Erythraeum (or Rubrum) Mare and the Sinus Gangeticus. The Erythraean (“red”) included the “gulfs” of the Ocean called Sinus Persicus and Sinus Arabicus, respectively the Persian Gulf and the Bay of Bengal. The Indian and the South Atlantic were also called Southern Ocean (Australis Ocearnus).
As we said, the Greeks of Herodotus and Plato’s time utlerly ignored the regions outside Gibraltar, for the Phoenicians closely guarded the secrets of their maritime discoveries. Pytheas of Massalia (Marseilles) was the first Greek to visit and describe the Atlantic coast of Europe. Pytheas exploration took place in 300BC, when Carthaginian power at the Mediterranean Gate slackned, due to strife in the region of Sicily, so that Pytheas was able to evade the permanent blockade. His report is reasonably accurate, through confined to England and France. Pytheas also mentions a impterious Thule (Scandinavia?). Pytheas expedition took place after Plato’s death (in 348BC ), so that, of course, this newly acquired information could be of no use to the great philosopher.
So, Plato’s knowledge of the Atlantic region was only by hearsay, as no Greek had ever travelled the region till after his death. The tradition he was reporting, as faithfully as he could, was based only on traditional sources which he had no means to verify or even retell in usual terminology. So, his Pillars of Hercules could be no other than those of Gibraltar the only geographical feature of that name that he knew. Likewise for the Atlantic Ocean. The expression “outside the Pillars of Hercules” which most translators improperly render as “in front of Pillars of Hercules” was a standard way to refer to region outside the Mediterranean region, and included all distant region such as Ethiopia and India, of which very little was know in his times.
Plato refers to the Outer Continent and to large islands placed before it. The Outer Continent (Eperias ges) was the one ringing the Oceanus all around, containig it, as if it were. But the term island (nesos) has to be clearly understood before one is able to correctly interpreted the thought of ancients mythographers and geographers. “Island”demoted any isolated region, particularly the ones placed on overseas coasts or isolated bi water or deserts in some way. Mesopotamia was an “island”, and so were Egypt and the Indus Valley (Doab), often called nesos. Promontories like the Peloponnesus (“island of Pelops”) were considered “islands”, and so were entire continents like Eurasia, for the term “continent” or “continent proper”.4
The Outer Continent of the Greeks and others was quite a natural idea for a people of mariners like the Atlanteans and the Phoenicians, as we show elsewhere. When the connection between the Black Sea, the Caspian and the Indian Ocean (Erythraean) was still navigable – as it was until 6 or 5 thounsand years ago – the Central Region comprising India, Pakistan, Cimmeria, Pontus, the Near East, Europe and Libya that lay within the peripheral Oceanus was called “earth” and the outhying lands formed a ring around this Ocean which was closed everywhere, exccept at the essentially impassable barriers posed by the Bering strait and the Magellan Strait.
1 Thales conception is derived from Oriental Sources (Babylorian, Egyptian and Hindu) which confused mytical beliefs with the reality. Hindu geographers well knew and tanght that the earth was spherical, and ever know the exact value of its circumpherence. The Flat Earth was a myptical conception, having to do with the image of Atlantis: a flat land of circular shape surrounded by a ring of water called River Oceanus, precisely as described by Plato.
An excellent investigation of the ancient conception of the world is given in G.S. kirk and J.E. Raven, The Presocratic Philosophers, which also contains many quotations in the original. We discuss this subject elsewhere in this work and in others, in more detail. The Flat Earth derives from the Hindu theory of the Dvipas – concentric rings of earth encircled by oceans called by strange names such Sea of Honey; Sea of Milk; Sea of Nectar, etc.. The Dvipas (“island” or, rather, “continents”) are a beautiful allegory of Atlantis.
2 This situation prevailed during the Ice Age down to six or seven thousand BC, as we explain elsewhere (see The Life of Alexander). It resulted from the larger precipitation that them prevailed in the morthern region, and has been inferred from geological studies. As we detail in the aforementioned chapter, this fact is also attested by local traditions from both Persia and Cimmeria which date back to Atlantean times. Alexander was taught of “the four gulfs of the Ocean that linked to the Mediterranean, and the Persians connect their desert – which they call Lot’s Desert (Dasht-i-Lut) – to the cataclysm that destroyed Sodon and Gomorrah. And many Greek traditions tell of the connection between the Arabian Sea and the Casprian, fruitlessly sought by Sesoatris, Darius and Others.
3 In the Argonautica and in the Odyssey these Central Guardians are equated to Scylla and Charybdis, posted at the narrow strait of the Cyanean Rocks ( or Symplegades) right at the entrance of Paradise (Aeaea) and Hell (Hades). We see that we have a total of Ten guardians, which correspond to the Ten Princes Of Atlantis and the Ten Prajãpatis or the Ten Aute-Diluvian Patriarchs. In the usinal accounts, the last two Guardians are Nir-riti and Ïsãnï
Buddhists also speak of 4; 8 or 10 Lokapãlas. Nir-riti (“destructions”) is a form or comterpart of Durgã Ïsãmï (“lordess”) or Ïsãna is a form (female) of Shiva. Hence, the two extra Guardians can be considered as the comterparts of Shiva and Durgã, the Guardians of Atlants.The eigth are usually held to guard the Cardinal Directions plus the intermediate regions. But this is a mere exoterism. They Guard, in pairs, the gates (four) mentioned above. And the Central Gates are guarded by the Cherubs or Agivins who correspond to Atlas and Hercules ( or Gadeiros) and their animal aliases, Orthrus and Cerberns.
4 The Outer continent was called by Plato and others by names that have no doubt to its true mamning. These names are based on the concept of peran or peiran, demoting “perimetral”, “outtermost”, “surrounding”, “delimiting”. Usual expressions were epeiros (“surrounding land”); ge peran tou Okeanou (“land around the Ocean”); pasan epeiron ten peri ton alethinon Ekeinon panton (the whole encircling land beyond that true sea). Hence, the term “continent” or outer “continent” meant “the land that contains (the Ocean)”.