A great enigma surrounding the origin of Civilization is the fact that in all places – Egypt, Mesopotamia, Palestine, India, Pakistan, Europe, etc. – what is actually observed is not a slow, painful progress, but an abrupt discontinuity in passing from the Paleolithic to the Neolithic. In no place that we know of is there a gradual evolution of the type one should expect, with the type of painful trial and error process that characterizes seminal inventions of great import such as the invention of agriculture and the development of domestic plants and animals. In no place of the world do we witness the continuous ascent of Man leading from and apelike animal to the semi-divine being who became the master of fire, of the arts, and the techniques. The archaeologists who will – perhaps a few tens of thousands of years from now – excavate the sites of the present American civilizations will find precisely what we normally observe everywhere in the Old World: they will observe a substrate of primitive cultures above which is placed an entirely new cultural horizon, often racially and technologically quite distinct from the previous one, and often far more advanced than their predecessors.