Early Americas and Sundaland – The Dark Earth Connection
It has been announced recently that some soils from rain forests thought to be virgin, are not. Such is the case with Amazon Jungle, thought to be pristine, but now in the wake of the great dry periods and deforestation, ewe can conclude and demonstrate they were never so. The Pre Colombian Indians and peoples, for all it seems, had huge civilizations that managed these soils and produced found Anthropogenic Dark Earths, or soil that has been artificially enhanced in various manners.
The riddle presented from such a research is that the Ancient peoples of the Americas and other parts of the globe did way more interaction than history pretends and also had way more technological governance than previously thought. By managing huge places and taming the geography at will, sometimes, these people demonstrate a great knowledge, possibly of alien source, or of one imported nature. These features shown, once compared to same found elsewhere, even in opposite side of globe, demonstrate such technology, unknown to us in extent, can be now spotted in very distinct places that must have been connected in early ancient times.
According to researchers in Brazil and other parts of globe, the Amazon Rainforest, thought to be pristine until recently, was home to approximately 50 million people before Columbus arrival. These immense populations can be now demonstrated to have existed even by Carbon in Atmosphere, which is a clear clue of human activity, as is well known. These studies show ample corroboration to the notion of a non-pristine Amazon Jungle and gives it a date of a mere five centuries, instead of millennia old “virgin” forest as prior thought to be. The fact that the rather famous dark earths of Amazon which verily provides nutrition to all forest, nurturing its ample ecological system was artificially introduced now makes more sense in connection to new findings, even in the other side of the world, in Borneo…
Researchers have shown recently that Anthropogenic Dark Earths Occur in the Interior of Borneo and this is a superb finding that further corroborates the newest paradigm that reigns in popular science of Lost Civilizations of advanced degree. These loom science for academics and scholars, after all, work as to satisfy popular demand, inclusively. Now, in order to have a multidisciplinary needed approach to this subject, we will need a lot of comprehension and let go the mainstream modus operandi, if we want to reach the bottom of truth.
The “Terra Preta de Índio” (Indian black earth) or Terra Preta of Western Amazonia is a thick, dark-coloured, anthropic epipedon, usually rich in nutrients. It occurs mostly at the fringes of the Terra Firme, along the Amazon river banks, overlying deep strongly weathered soils. [Lima et al, 2002]
The fact that these findings can and should be connected is hardly seen by science, yet this far. That because we do not depart from a complete working paradigm, or theory that makes sense and lets us comprehend a nonlinear story of the world and its populations.
According to [Sheil et al, 2012], anthropogenic soils of the Amazon Basin (Terra Preta) reveal that pre-Colombian peoples made lasting improvements in the agricultural potential of nutrient-poor soils. As can be seen in their research, the same feature was found in Borneo, in the other side of the planet:
“preliminary evidence for Anthropogenic Dark Earths (ADEs) in tropical Asia. Our surveys in East Kalimantan (Indonesian Borneo) identified several sites where soils possess an anthropogenic development and context similar in several respects to the Amazon’s ADEs. Similarities include riverside locations, presence of useful fruit trees, spatial extent as well as soil characteristics such as dark color, high carbon content (in some cases), high phosphorus levels, and improved apparent fertility in comparison to neighboring soils. Local people value these soils for cultivation but are unaware of their origins.”
The way the aboriginal and native peoples did to the soil is fantastically intrinsic. Amazonian anthrosols support similar microbial communities that differ distinctly from those extant in adjacent, unmodified soils of the same mineralogy, according to [Lima, 2002]. It seems that incomplete biomass burning and charcoal as well as volcanic ashes and other implements were key to having these modified soils including correcting pH, salinity, as well as implementing a rich microflora, perhaps. Such procedures, anyway, involves a very long span of time and a very complex knowledge as well as one conscious intent and necessary synergy. These are normally only found in very old and settled civilizations, or those which would rather import, instead of developing, their technology.
Our recent proposal of a connection between ancient Kalimantan and Amazon, as well as to Mississipi and the Congo Basin are based on similarities of culture, myths and as well in technologies used, such as these. It seems these peoples had immense civilizations with very advanced numbers, and these traits are unknown to science. Having trade and communication, for all it seems, these culture could not have developed independently, without contact, as is never the case.
Some features found in the above mentioned plains, Mississipi, the Congo Basin and the Amazon, just like in Borneo, or Kalimantan, suppose a vast technology and work involved. Pharaonic canals and river alterations toke place in a distant past in these regions, with the specific role of making plain navigable and irrigated.
In the light of new discoveries, we are concluding that a lot of trade toke place via sea faring, and other types of redemption. With specific purposes, these people did alterations in the geography of these regions that can be traced even to this day. Not having made in modern times, this riddle pretends to be one conclusive proof that history needs to be revisited, for we lost a piece of it in time. The fact is that now we know that Pre-Columbian Peoples Skilled Farmers, and Many Millions Killed by Invasion. It seems The most conservative studies estimated the Indian population in all of Amazonia to have been only one or two million souls when the Spanish arrived. However writers in the 18th and 19th centuries claimed that Native Americans were few and knew nothing of the sophisticated farming techniques practiced by Europeans. Newly discovered evidence debunks the narrative used to justify the monumental land thefts begun by the Columbian Encounter.
Today, anthropogenic (man-made) climate change can be measured. The concentration of carbon dioxide in the air for each period of life on planet, can be so known. High CO2 concentrations in atmosphere going back before the Holocene (the entirely recent epoch of humans) can be sampled. Ice core samples and other data corroborates these findings.
“A new study published by Charles R. Clement and six co-authors in the August issue of Proceedings of the Royal Society B also undermines the myth that the Americas were peopled by a tiny number of hunter-gatherers. Clements and his colleagues found physical corroboration of what the European eyewitnesses following Columbus claimed: the Amazon River watershed (Amazonia) was home to dense populations of Natives who grew more than enough food to feed themselves.” [http://indiancountrytodaymedianetwork.com/2015/08/24/science-blows-big-lies-pre-columbian-peoples-skilled-farmers-and-many-millions-killed]
Carbon dioxide levels at different times can also be measured in ice cores – mostly from the Greenland ice sheet (whose melting would essentially erase some good readings of past climate changes). There apparently was also a change in CO2 levels in the years after the Plague – which actually affected the world, not just Europe. Any time there is a great dying period on earth, regardless of cause, the ice sheets show a drop in CO2. It stands to reason that the New World, which developed pretty much on its own for thousands of years – with only a few contacts with small groups of other people (there is evidence of Polynesians, and even some aboriginal people from Australia and its surrounding islands), it stands to reason that the population got quite large.
We propose that the regions of Mississipi, the Amazon and as well the Congo Basin and possibly the Altiplanos were all colonies of Kalimantan, or one early Sundaland civilization that colonized and further spread these cultures with all similarities that can be seen. In special, the megalith and pyramid cultures as well as these soil interventions, or maybe even the geography change.
We can further infer, with the immense numbers involved, that PreColombian civilizations were far greater in number of individuals and technological advancement than is normally accepted in academic stream. There were, possibly, one equal number of inhabitants in North America and Africa. That can be inferred by the amount of work invested in these regions were they applied the same technology and that show same features.
Most tribes seem to have a legend of a cataclysm or a god’s curse and also of a “teacher” or God, or colonizing hero that came from the mother land of sorts that taught them to take from the land only what they could use, and not engage in abuse. This common theme and universal myth feature is considered to be one evidence that there was both a diaspora and a connection between all these cultures in a distant past. Also we can infer that there was some sort of huge perceived climate change in the past, or a series of events that made the native Americans come to the Americas in first place. Perhaps the die-off of the Pleistocene mammals, as we now know and can comfortably call Universal Flood.
As evidence that something terrible toke place in the past to our native Indians, a dip in atmospheric CO2 that is measurable in many ways worldwide is use: All measurements point to 1610 as the low point in the dive. These peoples were decimated with white peoples invasion. The calculation in the Nature article is that the European invasion caused the deaths of approximately 50 million people farming 1.3 hectares per person. Removal of that many people from that much land should sequester between 7 and 14 petagrams of carbon over 100 years.
It seems that much has to be found still in the connection of Kalimantan and the Amazon, but enough was shown to conclude a definitive link between early Indonesia or rather sunken Sundaland and the PreColombian peoples and their achievements. In special the dealing with the very strange and unique geography of these great plains, the techniques and myths behind their superb and highly organized societies All of these inhabited in the past by these now puzzling peoples that had far more pride and wisdom than the history tellers wanted us to realize.
Modern humans have been present in Borneo for over 50,000 years and in East Kalimantan for over 10,000 years. This leads us to conclude that they indeed originated agricultural technology and soil management practices, rather than importing them ready made… Moreover, that they later traded in as far as to the Americas. The inevitable fact is that there was a correlation and these techniques, along with religion and language, artifacts that allowed for settlement in first instance, were all brought from a common source, possibly Kalimantan, where older cultures can be found, or from Africa, but certainly having a common source. That can be further confirmed by similarities in Languages and evidence of early travel.
We shall take into account that early peoples spoke of such trade and it has been shown that they universally affirm their colonization by superior peoples and also, state that they do come from far, and came by matter of sea travel following an immense cataclysm. These common traits and stories are now seen like links to further evidence that are either telling and puzzling. We can infer, at least, that history is not so linear as we first assumed and myths like the Biblical Flood and so many instances of popular culture are being more revisited now…
just as Kalimantan and Indonesia, Brazil and the Amazon have a lot of things to do in order to reveal their so vast archeology and preserve history, almost lost. With new technology and good people, geoglyphs, which are large geometric patterns left in the ground, as well as artifacts and pyramids and even whole cities are found to be found in the middle of thought to be virgin forest.
Sheil, , https://www.researchgate.net/publication/244988296_Do_Anthropogenic_Dark_Earths_Occur_in_the_Interior_of_Borneo_Some_Initial_Observations_from_East_Kalimantan